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AUB

Referencing: Referencing Guide

Your Bibliography or Reference List

Referencing is an essential part of academic writing. When you are involved in the research process, you will be engaging with other people’s work, their words, ideas and arguments. Referencing is a standardised way of acknowledging the authors and sources you refer to in your assignments. 

All written work should include a Reference List or Bibliography. All sources should be presented in alphabetical order by author surname, and correctly formatted in the AUB Harvard style. This guide explains how to correctly format references for most sources you will use, with examples.

Browse this guide to find the item you wish to reference, or view the drop-down to see these as a list:

Books

Books with a Single Author
References from a printed book should be made up of the following elements:
  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition if not the first
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher

Example:
Kelly, M. (1997). Imaging desire. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 

 
Books with Multiple Authors
If there are two or three authors, list them in the order they appear. The same elements are required as for a single author.

Examples:
Parker, R. and Pollock, G. (1987). Framing feminism: art and the Women’s Movement 1970-85. London: Pandora.
or
Brown, J., Brignone, S. and Ward, A. (2001). The modern garden. London:  Thames & Hudson.

Where four or more authors are responsible for a publication use the first author’s name followed by et al.

Example:
Kotler, P. et al. (2002). Principles of marketing. 3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education.

 
Book by an Organisation

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Organisation's name
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition if not the first
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher

Example:
Association of Illustrators. (2000). Images 24: the best of British illustration. Crans-Pres-Celigny: Rotovision.

eBooks

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • [eBook]
  • Edition if not the first
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Lynge-Jorlén, A. (2017). Niche Fashion Magazines: Changing the Shape of Fashion. London: I. B. Tauris & Company. [eBook]. Available from: http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/aib/detail.action?docID=5161381. [Accessed 4 July 2019].
or
Carroll, L. (2008). Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. [eBook]. Millennium Fulcrum. Available from: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11 [Accessed 16 August 2017]

 
Kindle or eBook Reader

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of eBook edition (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • [Type of eBook reader]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date you first accessed the book]

Example:
Smith, A. (2008). The wealth of nations. [Kindle eBook]. Available from:http://www.amazon.co.uk. [Accessed 10 May 2018]

Essay or Contribution within a Book

In works where individual chapters have differing authors, or an essay within a publication has a different author than the rest of the book, references should consist of the following elements:

  • Contributing author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of chapter/essay/contribution
  • In:
  • Editor's family name, Initial(s)
  • (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Page number(s) of contribution.

If accessed online, also include the following:

  • [eBook] (following the title)
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Ehrenreich, B., Hess, E. and Jacobs, G. (1997). Beatlemania: a sexually defiant consumer culture? In: Gelder, K. and Thornton, S. (eds.) The subculturesreader. London: Routledge. pp.523-536.
or
Ajeenah, L. (1997). Arabic type is my type: A question of Arabic typography education. In: Heller, S. (ed.) The Education of a Graphic Designer. [eBook]. New York: Allworth Press. pp.279-286. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/ebookcentral/docview/2148292311. [Accessed: 3 September 2019].

Play Texts

For most play texts, follow the same format for referencing print books or eBooks, depending on the method of access.

  • Playwright's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition if not the first
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher

If accessed online, also include the following:

  • [eBook] (following the title)
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Kane, S. (2002). Phaedra's love. London: Methuen.
or
Kureishi, H. (2009). The Black Album. [eBook]. London: Faber and Faber. Available from: https://www.dramaonlinelibrary.com/plays/the-black-album-iid-134458/. [Accessed: 23 March 2019].

 

Works by Shakespeare with a Named Editor

List Shakespeare first, followed by the editor(s) after the title. For the in-text citation, use Shakespeare's name and the date the edition you are using was published.

Example:
Shakespeare, W. (1965). Measure for Measure. Lever, J.W. (ed.) London: Methuen.

 
Citing a Line in a Play
  • Playwright's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition if not the first
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Act, scene: line.

Example:
Shakespeare, W. (1980). Hamlet. Spencer, T.J.B. (ed.) London: Penguin. 1.2: 177

 
Print Dictionary or Encyclopedia Entry

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Dictionary/Encyclopedia publisher or Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of dictionary or encyclopedia entry.
  • Full title of dictionary/encyclopedia (in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

Example:
Collins (2010). Architecture. Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: Collins

 
Online Dictionary or Encyclopedia Entry

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Dictionary/Encyclopedia publisher or Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of dictionary or encyclopedia entry.
  • Full title of dictionary/encyclopedia (in italics)
  • [online]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Example:
Wikipedia. (2018). Lighthouse. Wikipedia. [online]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighthouse. [Accessed 10 September 2018]

Journal Articles

Journal Articles in Print

References for journal articles in printed journals should be made up of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of article
  • Title of journal (in italics)
  • Volume Number
  • Issue Number or Month
  • Page numbers

Examples:
Craik, J. (2003). The cultural politics of the uniform. Fashion Theory: the Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. Vol.7 No.2. pp.127-147.
or
Acharya, R. and Kaufman, E. (2019). Turns of ‘fate’: Jack Cole, jazz and Bharata Natyam in diasporic translation. Studies in Musical Theatre. Vol.13 No.1. pp. 9–21

Journal Articles in Online Databases

Electronic journals may have a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and/or a web address. Either can be used to say where the article is available from, but the DOI is preferred where available. References should be made up of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of article
  • Title of journal (in italics)
  • Volume Number
  • Issue Number or Month
  • Page numbers
  • [online]
  • Available from: DOI or Web Address

Examples:
Reddy-Best, K.L., Choi, E. and Park, H. (2018). Men in fashion illustration textbooks: A critical analysis of race and the body. Critical Studies in Men's Fashion. Vol. 5 No. 1–2. pp. 103–123 [online]. https://doi.org/10.1386/csmf.5.1-2.103_1.
or
Jackson, K.M. (2000). Play it again and again: Casablanca's impact on American mass media and popular culture. Journal of Popular Film and Television. Vol.27. No.4. pp.33-41 [online]. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/iipa/docview/2082100/220CD0BF22344A13PQ/3?accountid=8226

Newspapers & Magazines

Newspaper Articles in Print

References for articles in printed newspapers should be made up of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of article
  • Title of newspaper (in italics)
  • Day and Month
  • Page numbers

Example:
Younge, G. (2003). Civil rights kitchen serves last supper. The Guardian. 4 August. p.12.

 
Magazine Articles in Print

References for articles in printed magazines should be made up of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of article
  • Title of magazine (in italics)
  • Volume and Issue Number (if available)
  • Date and/or Month
  • Page numbers

Examples:
Ashworth, M. (2010). Hidden Posters on the London Underground. Creative Review. Vol.30 No.10. October. pp.1-19.
or
Meisel, S. (2016). Girls & Boys.Vogue Italia. No.785 January. pp.139-145.

Online Newspaper Articles

References for articles on newspaper websites should be made up of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of article
  • Title of newspaper (in italics)
  • Day and Month
  • [online]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Example:
Sanders, J. (2019). A Black Legacy, Wrapped Up in Fur. The New York Times. 31 January. [online]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/31/style/fur-black-women-history.html. [Accessed 22 June 2019].

 
Online Magazine Articles

References for articles in online magazines should be made up of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of article
  • Title of magazine (in italics)
  • [online]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Example:
Baines, J. (2019). Welcome to Response and Responsibility, a look at creativity and climate change. It's Nice That Magazine. [online]. Available from:https://www.itsnicethat.com/features/response-and-responsibility-introduction-miscellaneous-260619. [Accessed 11 July 2019].

Exhibitions

Artworks in Exhibitions

When referencing an artwork viewed as part of an exhibition, use the following elements:

  • Artist's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of exhibition (in brackets)
  • Title of the work, the year the work was produced (in italics)
  • [artwork type or exhibition]
  • 'Name of the exhibition' (if appropriate)
  • Place of exhibition:
  • Museum, gallery or exhibiting institution
  • Exhibition dates

Examples:
Batchelor, D. (2004). Drawings (Dollies), 1998. [painting]. ‘Shiny Dirty exhibition'. Birmingham: Ikon Gallery, 4 February – 28 March 2004.
or
Bompas and Parr (2013). The waft that woos, 2012. [installation]. Stratford-upon-Avon: Royal Shakespeare Theatre, 6 October 2012 - 7 April 2013

 
Museum or Gallery Exhibitions

When referencing an exhibition you have visited use the following elements:

  • Artist's Family Name, Initial(s)
    (Where there is no author/artist use the name of the gallery)
  • Year of exhibition (in brackets)
  • Name of the exhibition (in italics)
  • [exhibition]
  • Place of exhibition:
  • Museum, gallery or exhibiting institution
  • Exhibition dates

Examples:
National Portrait Gallery (2012). Marilyn Monroe: a British love affair. [exhibition]. London: National Portrait Gallery, 29 September 2012 - 24 March 2013
or
Dion, M. (2018). Theatre of the Natural World. [exhibition]. London: Whitechapel Gallery, 14 February - 13 May 2018

Exhibition Catalogues

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author or Artist’s Family Name, Initial(s)
    (Where there is no author/artist use the name of the gallery)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Place of publication/gallery:
  • Publisher/Gallery Name

Example:
Gallaccio, A. (2003). Anya Gallaccio. Birmingham: Ikon Gallery

Personal Communications

Interviews in Person

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Interviewee's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Interviewee's job title/position (if appropriate)
  • Interview with author
  • Day and Month

Example:
Green, V. (2017). Organic Farming Policy Officer. Interview with author. 7 September.

 
Interviews on the Telephone/Skype

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Interviewee's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Interviewee's job title/position (if appropriate)
  • Telephone conversation / Skype conversation with author
  • Day and Month

Example:
Longbridge, J. (2011). Opera South Public Relations Officer. Telephone conversation with author. 5 May.

Email Correspondence

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Sender's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Email to recipient's name
  • Day and Month

Example:
Smith, J. (2018). Email to John Jones. 5 May.

Letters

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Sender's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Sender's job title/position (if appropriate)
  • Letter to author
  • Day and Month

Example:
Beare, P. (2002). Deputy Head TAW Elementary School. Letter to author. 17 January.

Academic Outputs

Lecture Notes

Use this format for notes you have taken during lectures. References should consist of the following elements:

  • Lecturer's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Lecture Title (in italics)
  • Course Title
  • Institute name
  • Day and Month

Example:
Jones, A. (2014). Interpretation of text. BA Illustration. Arts University Bournemouth. 27 February.

 
Lecture Presentations

Use this format if referring directly to content in the lecture PowerPoint / presentation. References should consist of the following elements:

  • Lecturer's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of lecture (in brackets)
  • Title of Presentation (in italics)
  • [Format of presentation]
  • Title of unit
  • Institute name
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Example:
Albin, L. (2016). Textiles: visual research. [PowerPoint presentation]. TVS & CBITT. Arts University Bournemouth. Available from: https://mycourse.aub.ac.uk/batx4/ [Accessed 3 January 2017].

Thesis or Dissertation

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of award (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Designation / award
  • Institution to which submitted

Examples:
Favilla, A.L. (2004). Images of the virtual: rethinking photography in the age of biotechnologies. PhD Thesis. University of London.
or
West, N. (2001). Costume in the late 20th century ‘out-of- time’ films of Shakespeare’s plays: forms and functions. MA Dissertation. Nottingham Trent University

Published Conference Proceedings

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of Paper
  • In:
  • Editor's Family Name, Initial(s) (ed.) (if applicable)
  • Title of Conference Proceedings (in italics)
  • Place and date of conference
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Page number(s) of paper

Example:
Lieberman, O. and Altés Arlandis, A. (2013). Interventions, durations, effects: architecting the city and the world. In: Verbeke, J. and Pak, B. (eds.) Knowing (by) designing, 22-23 May 2013, Sint-Lucas School of Architecture, Brussels. Ghent/Brussels: LUCA, Sint-Lucas School of Architecture, Ghent/Brussels and KU Leuven, Faculty of Architecture. pp. 614-621.

 
Unpublished Conference Papers

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of conference (in brackets)
  • Title of paper (in italics)
  • Title of conference
  • Date of conference
  • Location of conference (including venue and city)

Example:
Lieberman, O. (2002). Interdisciplinarity to transdisciplinarity: rethinking the boundary in architectural learning. Shared Visions Conference, 1-3 September 2002, ADC-LTSN, Centre for Education in the Built Environment and Palantine, Brighton.

Web Sources

Web Pages

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of web page (in italics)
  • [online]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Check the guidance for online journals, newspapers and magazines, as these are treated differently.

Example:
Duchamp, M. (1957). The Creative Act. [online]. Available from: http://radicalart.info/things/readymade/duchamp/text.html. [Accessed 12 March 2019]

 
Web Pages with no Author

It can sometimes be difficult to ascertain the author of a website. If you can’t find an individual name use the name of the organisation or company to whom the website belongs.

Example:
Fashion Studies Alliance. (2018). Our Manifesto. [online]. Available from: https://www.fashionstudiesalliance.org/manifesto. [Accessed 10 July 2019]

 
Web Pages with no Publication Date

It can often be difficult to find out when online material was published. If there is a last updated date, or a date next to the copyright symbol at the bottom of the page, use this. If there is no indication of date at all, no date (n.d.) should be put in brackets after the name in place of the year.

Example:
National Museum Wales (n.d.). The process – from fleece to fabric. [online]. Available from: http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/wool/the-process/. [Accessed 10 August 2015]

Social Media Posts (e.g. Twitter, Instagram)

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
    or screen-name where this is not known
  • Year of post (in brackets)
  • Title or excerpt of post
  • Title of platform (in italics)
  • [online]
  • Day and Month of Post
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Navarro, J. (2012). Tactical haptics. Twitter. [online]. 11 January. Available from: https://twitter.com/TacticalHaptics/status/1134479250113699840. [Accessed 26 March 2016]
or
Nef, H. (2017). Space princess defends the Uffizi from aliens (house Medici 2078). Instagram. [online]. 6 June. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/BGVJHgiCyyG/?taken-by=harinef. [Accessed 14 December 2018]

Blogs

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
    or screen-name where this is not known
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of blog entry
  • Title of blog (in italics)
  • [online]
  • Day and Month of Post
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Example:
Lau, S. (2018). Dark Disney. Style Bubble. [online]. 22 June. Available from: http://stylebubble.co.uk/style_bubble/2018/06/dark-disney.html. [Accessed 26 October 2018].

Podcasts

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Title of Podcast
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of episode (in italics)
  • [online]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Example:
99% Invisible. (2018). Post-Narco Urbanism [online]. Available from: https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/post-narco-urbanism/. [Accessed: 19 April 2018]

Mobile App Content

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Originator or Author
  • Year (in brackets)
    or accessed year if this is not available
  • Title of app content
  • Title of app (in italics)
  • [mobile app]
  • [Accessed: Date]

Example:
BBC. (2013). Major changes to A-levels planned. BBC News. [mobile app]. [Accessed 23 January 2013]

Film & Video

Films Viewed at the Cinema or on Home Video

Use this format for films viewed at the cinema, or on DVD, Blu-Ray or other similar mediums for video material. References should consist of the following elements:

  • Director's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of film release (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • [Type of medium from which it was viewed]
  • Place of production
  • Production organisation (the main company if there are multiple)

Examples:
Aster, A. (2019). Midsommar. [Film]. New York: A24 Films.
or
Burton, T. (1988). Beetlejuice. [DVD]. London: Warner Home Video.
or
Allen, W. (1986). Hannah and her Sisters. [VHS]. Beverly Hills: MGM Home Entertainment.

 
Films Viewed Online

Use this format for films viewed online, through streaming services like Netflix or Box of Broadcasts (BoB). References should consist of the following elements:

  • Director's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of film release (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • [Film]
  • Production organisation (if known)
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Hitchcock, A. (1963). The Birds. [Film]. Universal Pictures. Available from: http://bobnational.net/record/136908. [Accessed 16 January 2016].
or
Cuarón, A. (2018). Roma. [Film]. Netflix. Available from: https://www.netflix.com/gb/title/80240715. [Accessed 25 February 2019].

TV Broadcasts

Use this format for television programmes watched on live television, on catch-up and on streaming services like iPlayer or Box of Broadcasts (BoB). References should consist of the following elements:

  • Series title (if appropriate) (in italics)
  • Episode number (if appropriate)
  • Episode title (in italics)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Channel
  • [Type of medium from which it was viewed]
  • Day and Month of Broadcast

If viewed online, also include the following:

  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Friends. The One Where Phoebe Runs. (2003). E4. [Television]. 8 August.
or
A Stitch in Time. Episode 5. The Black Prince (2018). BBC4. [Television]. 31 January. Available from: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/1091ADD3?bcast=126021038. [Accessed: 14 August 2018].

 
Radio Broadcasts

Use this format for radio programmes listened to live, on catch-up and on streaming services like Box of Broadcasts (BoB). References should consist of the following elements:

  • Series title (if appropriate) (in italics)
  • Episode number (if appropriate)
  • Episode title (in italics)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Channel
  • [Type of medium from which it was viewed]
  • Day and Month of Broadcast

If listened to online, also include the following:

  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
The Friday Play. Ruby on Tuesday. (2003). BBC Radio 4. [Radio]. 8 August.
or
An Obsessive Type: The Tale of the Doves Typeface. (2016). BBC Radio 4. [Radio]. 28 July. Available from: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0CF69D70?bcast=122181032. [Accessed 10 July 2019].

Interviews on TV & Radio

Use this format for interviews with individuals broadcast as a part of a TV or radio programme. References should consist of the following elements:

  • Name of person interviewed
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Interview by name of interviewer
  • Programme title (in italics)
  • Channel
  • [Type of medium from which it was viewed]
  • Day and Month of Broadcast

If viewed / listened to online, also include the following:

  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
McMaster, B. (2003). Interview by Mariella Frostrup. The Radio 2 Arts Programme. BBC Radio 2. [Radio]. 6 September.
or
Shulman, A. (2016). Interview by Richard Macer. Absolutely Fashion: Inside British Vogue. BBC2. [Television]. 11 September. Available from: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0D70CAEE?bcast=122484384. [Accessed 15 May 2018].

YouTube and other Video-Sharing Website Videos

Use this format for videos uploaded to YouTube, Vimeo and similar online video-sharing services. References should consist of the following elements:

  • Screen-name
  • Year uploaded (in brackets)
  • Video title
  • Title of platform (in italics)
  • [online]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

For feature films that have been uploaded to these services, follow the formatting for Films Streamed Online.

Examples:
Ninecreative. (2008). Esquire e-ink cover. YouTube. [online]. Available from: http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=KMb9tZ1TP8Q. [Accessed 10 September 2018].
or
Storm the Castle. (2019). A Little Film About...Matt Saunders. Vimeo. [online]. Available from: https://vimeo.com/311628741. [Accessed 15 May 2019]

Video Games

Use this format for video games on all platforms, including mobile games. References should consist of the following elements:

  • Title of game (in italics)
  • Edition or version (in brackets) (if applicable)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Platform
  • [game]
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher

Examples:
Fallout 4. (2015). PS4. [game]. Rockville, MD: Bethesda Softworks.
or
Monument Valley 2. (2017). iOS. [game]. London: Ustwo Games.

Performances

Production of a Play

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Playwright's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of performance (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Directed by name
  • Performance company
  • Performance venue
  • Location of performance
  • [Date performance viewed]

Example:
Shakespeare, W. (2008). Hamlet. Directed by Gregory Doran. Royal Shakespeare Company. The Courtyard Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon. [24 July 2008]

 
Dance Productions

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Choreographer's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of performance (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Directed by name (if appropriate)
  • Performance company
  • Performance venue
  • Location of performance
  • [Date performance viewed]

Example:
Bourne, M. (2019). Matthew Bourne's Swan Lake. New Adventures. Mayflower Theatre, Southampton. [19 February 2019]

Musical Recordings

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Recoding Artist's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Composed by name (if appropriate)
  • [medium]
  • Place of production (if known):
  • Producing organisation

Examples:
The Cure. (1992). Wish. [compact disc]. London: Fiction Records
or
Beyoncé. (2016). Lemonade. [mp3]. New York: Parkwood Entertainment.

Song Lyrics

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Songwriter's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Song title (in italics)
  • [lyrics]
  • Place of distribution (if known):
  • Distribution company or label

If found online, also include the following:

  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Taupin, B. (1973). Candle in the wind. [lyrics]. MCA Records.
or
Bowie, D. (1971). Life on Mars? [lyrics]. Available from: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/davidbowie/lifeonmars.html [Accessed 14 January 2016].

Libretto

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Tile of publication (in italics)
  • [libretto]
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher

Example:
Ashman, H. (1982). Little shop of horrors. [libretto]. London: Josef Weinberger.

Theatre Programmes, Prompt Books, etc.

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Theatre group/performer
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of performance (in italics)
  • Date of performance
  • Type of material e.g. programme/prompt book
  • Performance venue
  • Location of venue

Example:
The Royal Shakespeare Company. (1993). William Shakespeare’s The Tempest, 12 May 1993, programme, The Swan: Stratford-upon-Avon.

Law & Reports

Acts of Parliament

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Title of the Act and Year (in italics)
  • Chapter number of the Act; abbreviated to ‘c. (in brackets)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

Examples:
The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. (c.37). London: HMSO.
or
Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50). London: The Stationary Office.

 
UK Case Law

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Parties in the case (in italics)
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Abbreviation of law report page

Examples:
Monroe v Hopkins. (2017). EWHC 433 (QB).
or
Leigh & Sillivan Ltd v Aliakmon Shipping Co Ltd. (1986). AC 785 (HL).

 
Patents

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Originator
  • Name of applicant
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Tile of patent (in italics)
  • Series designation which may include full date

Example:
Philip Morris Inc. (1981). Optical perforating apparatus and system. European patent application 0021165 A1. 1981-01-07.

Reports from Government / Industry, etc.

References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of report (in italics)
  • Place of publication: (if available)
  • Publisher

If accessed online, also include the following:

  • [online]
  • Available from: Web Address
  • [Accessed: Date]

Examples:
Mowlam, A. (2012). Active at 60: local evaluation research: final report. London: Department for Work and Pensions.
or
Fisher, A. (2018). Improving diversity in beauty. Mintel. [online]. Available from: http://academic.mintel.com/display/878891/. [Accessed 31 January 2019]

Works by an Author with a Named Translator

List the author of the work before the translator - for the in text citation use the author’s name and the date. References should consist of the following elements:

  • Author’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • and
  • Translator’s Family Name, Initial(s)
  • (trans)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

Example:
Ibsen, H. and McFarlene, J. (trans). (1981). Four major plays. London: Methuen.

Your Own Translations

If you reference a source written in a language other than English in your reference list then you can either write the title in the original language, or an English translation with the language acknowledged. You will need to decide which you prefer and then use it consistently, for example:

Cabañas Bravo, M. (2008). Arte, poder y sociedad en la España de los siglos XV a XX. Madrid: Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas.
or
Cabañas Bravo, M. (2008). Art, power and society in Spain in the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries. (in Spanish). Madrid: Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas.
 

If you reference a source written in a language with a non-roman alphabet, e.g. Arabic, Chinese, Russian, etc. you will need to use a standard transliteration scheme to write the title in your reference list. For example:

Zhuō, R. (2019). Yě shòu xiōng měng: Wài tān “bǎi wù qū”. Yì Shù Jiè: LEAP. [online]. Available from: http://www.leapleapleap.com/2019/07/beastly-an-opera-for-animals-at-rockbund-shanghai/?lang=zh-hans. [Accessed 12 March 2020].
 

Follow the referencing guidance for the type of media you have translated from - e.g. book, journal article, website, etc.

A PDF version of this guide is available here: Referencing PDF