Knowing how and when to integrate other people’s ideas and research throughout your work by quoting, paraphrasing and summarising is key part of referencing:
Direct quotations are a word for word inclusion of a quote in your piece of work. The source, author and page numbers must be included in the citation.
Sparke (2009, p.19) argues that ‘we are so surrounded by design that it feels as if life must have always been lived this way’.
Craft can be seen ‘as a conceptual limit active throughout modern artistic practice’ (Adamson, 2013, p.2).
Quoting should be done sparingly, and used when you need to appeal to the authority of the author, or the author’s particular use of words is interesting or important. Otherwise, you should try to paraphrase.
Paraphrasing involves restating someone else’s argument in your own words. The source, author and page numbers must be cited.
Members of a given subculture distinguish themselves from mainstream society by adopting a distinctive individual identity (Muggleton, 2000, p.63).
You can paraphrase to simplify or clarify the source, or to emphasise certain aspects of what the author said. You should aim to paraphrase from sources more often than you quote from them.
Summarising is briefly covering the ideas/arguments of others in your own words. The source and author must be cited.
McQuiston (1997) decribes the way in which women and women’s movements have used graphic design as a tool for empowerment.
Summarise when you want to shorten or simplify the source material, or give an overview of the whole book, article, etc.