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Referencing: Formatting the Bibliography

Reference List or Bibliography

This is where you give the full bibliographic reference to all the sources you use, and includes all the sources you have cited in your work in alphabetical order, by the author's family name (or organisation name where this is not available).

There are some small difference between reference lists and bibliographies:

  • A reference list includes all the sources that you have cited in your work.
  • A bibliography lists all sources that you have used plus any other sources that informed your research that have not been directly cited.

You may sometimes be asked to produce both - always check with your tutor to be sure what is expected. 

Need Help?

If you have any questions or need any help with referencing, get in touch with your Subject Librarian.

Example Bibliography

Example bibliography image showing various references listed in alphabetical order

This is an example of how a reference list or bibliography might look. Although reference lists and bibliographies contain slightly different information, they are both formatted in exactly the same way. 

General Guidance

  • Place your reference list/bibliography at the end of your work, starting on a new page. 
  • All sources that you have cited in your work require an entry in your reference list or bibliography. Do not cite material without also including a corresponding entry in your reference list/bibliography.
  • Present all your references in one list, alphabetised by author surname. Do not divide your references up by format. All types of references, including books, websites, films and journal articles, appear in the same list.