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Referencing: Appendices

What is an Appendix?

An appendix (plural: appendices) contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may provide useful background material, evidence or context.

Appendices can contain all sorts of information, but commonly they include graphs created from your own data, data itself and/or correspondence. There is no limit to what can be placed in the appendix providing it is relevant and reference is made to it in the essay. 

If a source can be included in the reference list and/or list of figures, do not put it into your appendices, it should be referenced in the bibliography or included in the list of figures instead.

If you are unsure of what to include in the appendices please ask your unit tutor.

Formatting Your Appendix

An appendix is placed at the end of your essay or report, after the reference list/bibliography. If there is more than one appendix, distinguish them using letters or numbers, e.g. Appendix A, or Appendix 1. Each appendix should deal with a separate topic.


  • Order the appendix items in the same order they are referred to in text.
  • Create a label and descriptive title for each appendix item, e.g. Appendix A: Questionnaire Data.
  • Each appendix entry starts on a new page with the relevant Appendix label (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix A, etc.). If there is only one appendix, it is just called Appendix
  • Ensure that the label matches the in text citation to the Appendix

Citing an Appendix

All items that are placed in an appendix should be cited in your essay/report. The order they are numbered/lettered is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of the report. So, the first Appendix you mention should be Appendix 1/Appendix A, the second should be Appendix 2/Appendix B, and so forth.

Appendix A shows the results from the survey…
…the email from the producer indicated the delay (see Appendix B).